Can Kale Survive Frost?

The nutritional powerhouse and darling of health-conscious diets, Kale, has established itself as a hardy and versatile leafy green. As winter draws near, gardeners – both professional and amateur alike – might reflect upon the question: can kale endure frost?

This article explores the intriguing realm of kale’s frost tolerance; it seeks to comprehend what influences its capacity to withstand chilly temperatures while also providing guidance on cultivating this robust vegetable throughout the wintertime.

Understanding Kale

A cruciferous vegetable, Kale (Brassica oleracea) belongs to the Brassicaceae family; it exists in manifold forms: curly kale, Lacinato (or Tuscan and dinosaur kale), and Red Russian kale. Its popularity as an addition to salads, smoothies, soups, and even a variety of dishes is largely due to its rich nutrient profile.

Can Kale Survive Frost?

1. Cold-Hardy Nature

Indeed, Kale distinguishes itself as a notably cold-tolerant vegetable within the Brassica family; it not only thrives in cooler temperatures but also develops increased sweetness following exposure to frost.

Although not impervious to freezing conditions, its robust nature enables endurance and even reaps benefits from light to moderate frost.

2. Temperature Thresholds

Temperatures as low as 20°F to 25°F (-6°C to -4°C) are tolerable for Kale. Even in regions with milder winters, it exhibits active growth throughout the colder months and offers a fresh, nutritious harvest when numerous other vegetables falter during this season.

Factors Influencing Kale’s Resilience to Frost

1. Variety Selection

Curly kale varieties like Winterbor or Winter Red, and Lacinato kale demonstrate different degrees of cold tolerance. They are renowned for their remarkable ability to endure frost. Similarly, due to its frequent resilience in low temperatures, people often favor Red Russian kale for winter gardens.

2. Maturity of the Plant

Compared to young seedlings, frost poses a lesser threat to mature kale plants. The hardy structure that develops as kale matures equips it better to withstand colder temperatures. Frost inflicts less damage on well-established plants with sturdy leaves.

3. Growing Conditions

The overall health and vigor of kale plants, along with their ability to withstand frost, correlate directly. Well-draining soil enriched in organic matter fosters the thriving nature of kale. The resilience of kale also reaps benefits from adequate watering; moreover, it is significantly influenced by proper spacing.

4. Microclimates

Within a garden, microclimates can induce temperature variations; areas boasting robust air circulation and inherent windbreaks due to their advantageous conditions—may yield milder environments. Consequently, this minimizes the peril of frost damage on kale plants.

kale in the garden

6 Tips for Cultivating Kale in Frost-Prone Regions

1. Select Cold-Hardy Varieties

Choose cold-tolerant kale varieties when planning a winter garden; popular options are Winterbor, Winter Red, Lacinato – also known as Dino or Tuscan kale – and Red Russian. Breeders have specifically developed these strains to withstand lower temperatures as they typically flourish in frigid conditions often associated with the winter season.

2. Plant in Late Summer or Early Fall

Plant kale seeds or transplants in late summer to early fall, maximizing its exposure to cooler temperatures and reinforcing its frost tolerance. By doing so, you allow the plants ample time for self-establishment before winter commences.

3. Provide Adequate Spacing

Encouraging good air circulation, proper spacing between kale plants reduces the likelihood of frost damage: aim for a spacing of 18 to 24 inches or 45-60 cm; this allows each plant to develop a robust structure.

4. Mulch Around Plants

The application of an organic mulch layer around the kale plant’s base insulates the soil, safeguarding its roots from drastic temperature changes. Furthermore, this act prevents immediate soil cooling and reduces potential frost damage risk.

5. Monitor Weather Forecasts

Regularly monitor weather forecasts, particularly throughout the winter months; prepare to enact protective measures upon predictions of frost or freezing temperatures. Being cognizant of weather patterns enables timely intervention – an essential safeguard for kale plants.

During the cooler months, it’s essential kale receive as much sunlight as possible.

6. Covering Plants During Frost

Anticipating frost, one can provide a protective barrier to kale plants by covering them with frost cloth, blankets, or burlap. This strategic approach traps heat in the proximity of the plants and effectively prevents leaves from serving as settlement grounds for any potential frost.

Observing and Responding to Frost Damage

Kale plants, even when we take precautions, may still show signs of frost damage. Common symptoms such as wilting, discoloration, or a change in leaf texture. Should you observe frost damage, contemplate the subsequent steps:

1. Assess the Extent of Damage

Assess the degree of frost damage inflicted upon the kale plants. Should only a section of the plant bear injury, trimming that portion might enable the redirection of its energy toward healthier parts.

2. Prune Damaged Growth

Using clean, sharp scissors or pruning shears, prune back any leaves that appear visibly damaged or discolored. Ensure you make clean cuts to foster healing and stimulate new growth.

3. Evaluate the Roots

Inspect the roots of the kale plant gently for any signs of rot or damage; if they appear healthy, there exists a promising possibility that it may recover. Remove all soft and discolored sections from its root system and consider also augmenting insulation with supplementary mulch to shield against future stress on these vital components.


Kale endures frost and thrives in colder temperatures, making it an excellent addition to winter gardens; it’s a reliable source of fresh, nutrient-packed greens. As gardeners brave the world of winter gardening understanding factors that influence kale’s resilience to frost is crucial: implementing strategic care practices guarantees bountiful harvests even as temperatures plummet.

Therefore, let robustly vibrant leaves withstand the chill—providing both nourishment and taste enhancement for winter meals—and reaffirm its champion status among all-seasonal crops.